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John Watson attributed to Tarrasch "by legend" and says that statistics do not support the statement Watson — Benko wonders if it was due to Vasily Smyslov Benko Attributing the quote to Tarrasch may be a result of confusion between this quote and the Tarrasch rule concerning rooks. The source of the quote is currently unresolved. In queen and pawn endings , passed pawns have paramount importance, because the queen can escort it to the queening square alone.

The advancement of the passed pawn outweighs the number of pawns. The defender must resort to perpetual check. These endings are frequently extremely long affairs.

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For an example of a queen and pawn endgame see Kasparov versus the World — Kasparov won although he had fewer pawns because his was more advanced. For the ending with a queen versus a pawn, see Queen versus pawn endgame. The queen and pawn versus queen endgame is the second most common of the "piece and pawn versus piece" endgames, after rook and pawn versus rook. It is very complicated and difficult to play.

Human analysts were not able to make a complete analysis before the advent of endgame tablebases Nunn This combination is a win less frequently than the equivalent ending with rooks. The difference in material between a rook and a minor piece is about two points or a little less, the equivalent of two pawns. If both sides have pawns, the result essentially depends on how many pawns the minor piece has for the exchange:.

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In an endgame, two minor pieces are approximately equivalent to a rook plus one pawn. The pawn structure is important. The two pieces have the advantage if the opponent's pawns are weak. Initiative is more important in this endgame than any other.

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The general outcome can be broken down by the number of pawns. Without pawns this is normally drawn, but either side wins in some positions. A queen and pawn are normally equivalent to two rooks, which is usually a draw if both sides have an equal number of additional pawns. Two rooks plus one pawn versus a queen is also generally drawn. While playing for a draw, the defender the side with fewer pawns should try to avoid situations in which the queen and rooks are forcibly traded into a losing king and pawn endgame. If there are no pawns, the position is usually drawn, but either side wins in some positions.

A queen is equivalent to a rook and bishop plus one pawn. If the queen has an additional pawn it wins, but with difficulty. Besides the basic checkmates, there are other endings with no pawns. They do not occur very often in practice.

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Two of the most common pawnless endgames when the defense has a piece in addition to the king are 1 a queen versus a rook and 2 a rook and bishop versus a rook. A queen wins against a rook — see pawnless chess endgame Queen versus rook. A rook and bishop versus a rook is generally a theoretical draw, but the defense is difficult and there are winning positions see Rook and bishop versus rook endgame.

A rook is worth roughly two pawns plus a bishop or a knight. A bishop and knight are worth roughly a rook and a pawn, and a queen is worth a rook, a minor piece bishop or knight and a pawn see Chess piece relative value. Three pawns are often enough to win against a minor piece, but two pawns rarely are.

However, with rooks on the board, the bishop often outweighs the pawns. This is because the bishop defends against enemy rook attacks, while the bishop's own rook attacks enemy pawns and reduces the enemy rook to passivity. This relates to Rule 2 with rooks above. A bishop is usually worth more than a knight. A bishop is especially valuable when there are pawns on both wings of the board, since it can intercept them quickly.

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Endgame tablebases have made some minor corrections to historical endgame analysis, but they have made some more significant changes to endgame theory too. The fifty-move rule is not taken into account in these studies. In May a record-shattering move endgame was announced see first diagram. Marc Bourzutschky found it using a program written by Yakov Konoval. Black's first move is This was determined using the easier-to-calculate depth-to-conversion method, which assumes that the two sides are aiming respectively to reduce the game to a simpler won ending or to delay that conversion.

Such endgames do not necessarily represent strictly optimal play from both sides, as Black may delay checkmate by allowing an earlier conversion or White may accelerate it by delaying a conversion or not making one at all. In September , it was found that the distance to mate not conversion in that position was see the first diagram. White takes 6 moves to promote the pawn to a Knight leading to a position similar to the first diagram , after which it takes another moves to win the game. The fifty-move rule was ignored in the calculation of these results and lengths, and as of , these games could never occur, because of the seventy-five move rule.

Endgames can be classified by the material on the board. The standard classification system lists each player's material, including the kings, in the following order: king, queen, bishops, knights, rooks, pawn. Each piece is designated by its algebraic symbol. In positions with two or more bishops on the board, a "bishop signature" may be added to clarify the relationship between the bishops. Two methods have been used. The informal method is to designate one color of squares as "x" and the other color as "y". The more formal method is to use a four digit suffix of the form abcd :. In positions with one or more rooks on the board and where one or both players have one or both castling rights, a castling signature may be added to indicate which castling rights exist. The method is to use a one to four character suffix formed by omitting up to three characters from the string KQkq.

GBR code is an alternative method of endgame classification. The full system is a page index that was contained in the book The Best Endings of Capablanca and Fischer. The code starts with a letter representing the most powerful piece on the board, not counting kings. The order is queen, rook, bishop, knight, and then pawn. Figurines are used to stand for the pieces. Each of these has up to subclassifications, for instance R00 through R The first digit is a code for the pieces.

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For instance, R0 contains all endgames with a rook versus pawns and a rook versus a lone king, R8 contains the double rook endgames, and R9 contains the endings with more than four pieces. The second digit is a classification for the number of pawns. For instance, R30 contains endgames with a rook versus a rook without pawns or with one pawn and R38 are rook versus rook endings in which one player has two extra pawns. The table below lists the most common endings in actual games by percentage percentage of games, not percentage of endings; generally pawns go along with the pieces.

There are many books on endgames, see Chess endgame literature for a large list and the history. Some of the most popular current ones are:.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Chess players classify endgames according to the type of pieces that remain. Main article: Checkmate. Main article: King and pawn versus king endgame.

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